Dr. Gunjesh Kumar Singh

MBBS, MD, DM, ECMO, ACORD Fellow

Medical & Haemato Oncologist

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Blood Cancer

Blood cancers affect the production and function of your blood cells. Most of these cancers start in your bone marrow where blood is produced. Stem cells in your bone marrow mature and develop into three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. In most blood cancers, the normal blood cell development process is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of an abnormal type of blood cell. These abnormal blood cells, or cancerous cells, prevent your blood from performing many of its functions, like fighting off infections or preventing serious bleeding.

There are three main types of blood cancers:
1) Leukemia, a type of cancer found in your blood and bone marrow, is caused by the rapid production of abnormal white blood cells. The high number of abnormal white blood cells are not able to fight infection, and they impair the ability of the bone marrow to produce red blood cells and platelets.
2) Lymphoma is a type of blood cancer that affects the lymphatic system, which removes excess fluids from your body and produces immune cells. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that fight infection. Abnormal lymphocytes become lymphoma cells, which multiply and collect in your lymph nodes and other tissues. Over time, these cancerous cells impair your immune system.
3) Myeloma is a cancer of the plasma cells. Plasma cells are white blood cells that produce disease- and infection-fighting antibodies in your body. Myeloma cells prevent the normal production of antibodies, leaving your body's immune system weakened and susceptible to infection.


Symptoms -

Blood cancer is a type of malignancy which affects the blood, bone marrow, or lymphatic system. Some of the common blood cancer symptoms include:
- Weakness, Fatigue, and Malaise
- Shortness of breath
- Minimal body strain results in bone fractures
- Excessive or easy bruising
- Bleeding gums
- Recurrent infections or fever
- Sweating of body during night
- Weight loss
- Frequent vomiting sensations
- Anorexia
- - Lymph node (gland) enlargement
- Lumps or abdominal distension due to enlarged abdominal organs
- Abdominal pain, Bone pain and Back pain
- Delirium and confusion
- Abnormal bleeding in gums nose and cuts, which will lead to platelet reduction
- Headaches along with visual difficulties
- Occurrence of fine rashes on dark spots
- Decreased urination and difficulty while urinating



Causes -

Although the specific cause of blood cancer is unknown, various factors are associated with its onset. Some causes are:
- Aging
- Family history
- Weak immune system
- Certain infections